Making the important decision of becoming a doctor

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So you have decided to take the path of becoming a doctor. There are two things you need to remember very well even from the very beginning – be patient and hardworking.

How did your family and friends react when you told them what you want to do for a living? Did they support you or did they not believe you able to achieve this goal?

When making this decision you should ask  yourself “Am I persistent enough?”.

Medicine is not at all about how smart you are. Yes, of course it might be a bit easier if your IQ is high. However, if it is not that does not mean you are incapable to be an amazing doctor. The basic thing you need is persistence. The process of educating yourself is extremely long, especially if you want to take a specialty such as cardio surgeon or neurosurgeon. That is 4 years of premedical school, another 4 years of medical school and then 5 or 6 years of specialization. Not to say about the high competition in this field. None of this should be of importance to you if you believe in yourself and in what you are capable of. Do not listen to people who tell you that you cannot manage this and show them the opposite. Being a great doctor is not about knowing every single fact of the books you had to read, but of knowing where to check it up in the rare cases when you need to, it is about having an open great heart, the desire of helping people, of being compassionate and caring.

Many doctors forget that patients have no way of knowing if their treatment is the right one. You as a doctor decide this. But they judge the competence of the doctor by their attitude. Be sure that if you are communicating with your patients, have a nice relaxing attitude, explaining everything in a way that they can understand, you would be an amazing doctor.

Do you think you can be like that? Can you be persistent enough to wait all these years to actually start working as a doctor? Do you think you are capable to spend countless hours every day studying? Giving up many times a nice outing with your friends, making sacrifices sometimes with your free time.

There is something important which you should follow if you decide to become a physician. Always try to balance between home and work. You need a clear mind and heart in order to do your job the way you should. If you are happy in your personal life, your positive energy will have an amazing effect on your patients.

I hope this can help out in this important decision, because you need to be really motivated and take it really seriously. It would not be good if you waste years of your life studying something which you get to hate in the end.


Down syndrome

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Down syndrome is due to a chromosomal abnormality of the numerical type. There is an additional chromosome 21 to the karyotype. Therefore they have 47 chromosomes (47XX+21 for girls and 47XY+21 for boys). This larger number of chromosomes is the reason for different changes in the normal development of the body and the brain. This syndrome is the most common reason of birth defects with people. Usually there is one incident in 2000 conceptions. This rate is with women under the age of 25. The older the women are, the higher the chance of Down syndrome is.

In 4% of the cases except a trisomy 21 there is also another chromosomal abnormality. It occurs a translocation between chromosome 21 and chromosome 13, 14 or 15. This causes additional changes in the normal development.

Symptoms of Down syndrome

With this syndrome symptoms can vary with different people. They could be really mild or severe.

There could be growth retardation, mental retardation, hypotonia, leukemia, thyroid dysfunction, cardiac defects, decreased muscle tone. The head is smaller and with a different than the normal shape. There is a flat face and small ears. Down syndrome is characterized also by premature aging, small mouth, upward slanting eyes. The hands are short, as well the fingers. The eye has white spots on its color part.

As shown the result of this syndrome affects both outlook and the normal structure and functions of organs. For patients with Down syndrome is typical to have poor judgement, impulsive behavior, as well as a slower learning process. There are particular medical related conditions that could occur as well. Such are dislocations in the hip zone, dementia, cataracts, problems with hearing.

Treatment methods

So far there is no particular treatment, that can make these chromosomal abnormalities fade or decrease their effect on the organism. Sometimes there could be done surgeries of the heard or other systems and organs, which are affected and cause risk of death.

There are different trainings that prepare the parents and the child with Down syndrome, that to some extent helps them to go through this together and not lose their positivity and love for life.


HIFU treatment of prostate cancer

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The percentage of men suffering prostate cancer increases with every year. Cancer is a really dangerous disease, that seems to be affecting more and more people. It is life threatening and there is no real treatment for it. Prostate cancer is a type which also could have a lethal outcome. The prostate is an organ of the male reproductive system. It participates in men normal sexual activity, produces liquid that takes part in the semen. It helps for the normal function of the spermatozoids.

Being diagnosed with prostate cancer has a really big impact on one’s life.  Of course, there are different ways that can be taken as a treatment. The information about each one of them would be given by the doctor and the staff. There would be help and any questions will be answered.

HIFU treatment

Most doctors advise their patients to choose the HIFU treatment. It is a new way of treating prostate cancer. It is preferred because of its least invasion of other tissues. Cancerous tissue is addressed with ultrasound waves that lead to increase in temperature and destroying the cells of this tissue. Any other cells around it are not damaged. The specific place is easy to be treated without having the usual side effects of the other treatments. HIFU technique lets the doctor have a good imaging resolution. This is extremely important for the normal performing of this procedure.

Great side of HIFU treatment is also that there is no hospitalization after the procedure. You can go home and enjoy the time with your family. There is no better place to regain strength and health than the place you call home.

The precision minimum invasion of the High Intensity Focused Ultrasound treatment and its great outcome is one great choice for prostate cancer patients.

Side effects

Of course this treatment has its side effects, which the doctor should explain before further proceeding. Such are:

  • Proteinuria
  • Prostatitis
  • Pain around the treated tissues
  • Difficulty during urinating
  • Hematospermia

HIFU treatment gives good chances to the patients. However, cancer is a disease that can always revive. Check ups should be performed to make sure everything is okay.

Tips on weight loss

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More and more people are having problems with their weight. Some people do not take this seriously, but it could turn into a really dangerous and even life threatening problem. Being overweight is extremely unhealthy, because it loads the heart too much. It makes it hard for the normal pumping function of the heart. The increased cholesterol levels are bad for the normal transmission of blood through veins and arteries. Inability for organs to receive a normal quantity of gases and nutritious substances leads to changes in their structure, in the normal function of their cells. The cardiovascular system is one of the most important systems in the body. Without it there is no nutrition to the rest of the structures, no regulation, no immune protection.

Many people know they are overweight and fear going on the scale. They should do the opposite, overcome the fear and see your real weight. If you do not like it, then change it. It is all in your mind.

Is there a nice dress or tight pants you love but cannot wear? Are they just hanging in the closet waiting to be used? You should hang them somewhere else, in an obvious place and look at them on a daily basis. You need the motivation in order to succeed. Do this for your own self, not for anyone else. Your body deserves the best treatment. Give healthy food to it and the outcome will be really good.

Never let yourself be hungry.

It is better to eat just a bit but many times per day. Extremely important it it is to have breakfast. It gives your body energy and prepares you for the new day. Some kind of fruit such as apples, oranges, pears and others can be a good example of a healthy breakfast. You can eat bananas and grapes but in less quantities. Eat oil free meals, many vegetables, salads. For a good diet you can also eat eggs, but still in little quantities. Avoid hunger, because when hungry it is really hard to obtain your will for a diet.


Try doing exercises.

It does not mean it has to be hours, even just a few minutes could be of great help. Try walking more. Keep your deep breathing if you decide to go jogging in the morning.











Go on long walks in the park with friends, your dog or alone.














Avoid stress.

Stress is a really bad factor. Your organism has different ways of reacting to stress. It is unhealthy in many ways. Try to be relaxed, have long tranquilizing baths. Before going to sleep you could drink a hot cup of tea, which will also have a soothing effect. Tea is also really good for metabolism, which is essential in diets.

Keep in mind that losing weight is not impossible and you can do it just like many other people. Keep yourself motivated, have patience and you will be surprised by the result.

Klinefelter syndrome

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Chromosome abnormalities can occur in both autosomes and sex chromosomes. When occurring in sex chromosomes there could be different outcomes. One of them is trisomy, where men have two X chromosomes and one Y chromosome. Because of this they have 47 chromosomes and their karyotype is 47XXY. It is called Klinefelter syndrome. This anomaly is seen only with men. Signs of it usually are noticed during puberty, where there are some changes in the outlook than a normal male development.

Signs of Klinefelter syndrome

Men with this anomaly in most cases are sterile, low development of the testicles ( testicular atrophy), gynecomastia ( increased size of the chest) and hyalinization of the seminiferous tubules. There is also a presence of sex chromatin (Barr) body. This body is typical of one of the two chromosomes in women. Having two X chromosomes in men is the reason for the forming of this body. There is also less amount pubic hair than normal. The same is for the hair of the armpits and face. Body proportions are different than normal as well. Usually there are long legs and short trunk, as well as same sized shoulders and hips.

Tests and treatment

Determining this anomaly can happen by performing tests such as karyotyping and semen count. Hormone levels could be checked as well by blood tests. Usually the analyzed hormones are Estradiol, Follicle stimulating hormone, Lutinizing hormone and Testosterone.

As treatment testosterone could be prescribed to the patient. The purpose of this is to grow more hair, improve muscles and concentration, increase strength, mood and self esteem.

How often does it occur?

The frequency of this anomaly is one in 500 newborn males. There are cases where there could be more than two X chromosomes. For example there could be three (48XXXY). That means there are 44 autosomes and 4 sex chromosomes in the child’s cells. The larger number of X chromosomes makes it  more likely to have mental impairment.

Chromosome abnormalities

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What are chromosome abnormalities?

These are changes in the normal number and structure of the chromosomes. Most of them have either lethal outcome or cause different changes to the normal structure of the body. Some of them cause changes in the brain such as mental retardation.

What types of chromosome abnormalities are there?

Chromosome abnormalities could be two types -  numerical and structural.

In the numerical chromosome abnormality there is a difference in the usual number of chromosomes. There are two types – euploidy and aneuploidy. Euploidy is when the cells have a different amount of chromosomes which is even to the normal haploid state of the cell. For example, human cells are diploid (2n).  Euploidy is when the cells are triploid (3n), tetraploid (4n), etc. The number increases with a “n”. Aneuplody is when the number changes because of additional or missing chromosomes. For example, human reproductive cells are haploid (n). However, during cell division chromosomes could not divide normally and as a result there are cells with additional chromosome (n+1) or cells which are missing a chromosome (n-1). The first case is called trisomy and the second monosomy. There are cells which could have a whole pair of chromosomes as addition or missing. The first case is tetrasomy (2n+2) and the second nullisomy (2n-2).

Structural abnormalities are due to change in the structure of chromosomes. They occur because of chromosome breakage. This is caused by different factors of the environment. As a result of this breakage a chromosome could lose a part of its structure, receive an additional part or exchange parts between two homologous chromosomes. There is also the possibility of reversing a part inside the chromosome. Losing a part of the chromosome is referred as deletion, having a duplicate part similar to another one of the chromosome is called duplication. Reversing a part of the chromosome is called inversion. Exchanging parts between homologous chromosomes is called translocation.

What causes such abnormalities?

All of these abnormalities are due to changes in the cells, mainly in the mitotic spindle. This is a really important temporary structure, which forms only during cell divisions. Its importance is to make sure that chromosomes divide normally and each daughter cell receives the needed number. Chromosomal abnormalities are caused because of factors, which affect the organism. For example, radiation, viruses, bacterias, drugs and others.