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What is diabetes?

Diabetes is a disease that many people have been diagnosed with. There is no real treatment for it, it lasts a lifetime. It is connected to a hormone – insulin, that is produced by the pancreas. Insulin is important for letting additional sugar from the blood inside the cells. If there is some change in the normal quantity of insulin released into the blood by the pancreas, then more sugar than the normal amount will stay in the blood. However, in the organism there is a basic rule – homeostasis. Every liquid has a specific concentration of each substance and this is extremely important for every function that takes place. Additional  sugar in your blood will lead to different changes in your organs, which will affect their normal function. This leads to death. Read more

Breast Cancer

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What is breast cancer and how prone am I to get it?

Breast cancer affects more and more women. It is estimated that one in eight women is going to have this type of cancer. Breast cancer develops in different tissues of the breasts. There are different  factors that lead to this condition. Most of them are inevitable. These risk factors include:

  • Age – as the woman gets older the risk of being diagnosed with breast cancer increases
  • Cancer history – if there were cases in the family of breast cancer before, then chances of contracting this disease are higher
  • Genetic information – we do not choose what genes to wear in our cells, but when the human genome was decoded in the Human Genome Project it became obvious that some people are more prone to specific diseases than others
  • Radiation – this is a factor that causes all kinds of cancer, as well as other diseases

These are the basic factors that increase the chance of breast cancer. Read more

Down syndrome

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Down syndrome is due to a chromosomal abnormality of the numerical type. There is an additional chromosome 21 to the karyotype. Therefore they have 47 chromosomes (47XX+21 for girls and 47XY+21 for boys). This larger number of chromosomes is the reason for different changes in the normal development of the body and the brain. This syndrome is the most common reason of birth defects with people. Usually there is one incident in 2000 conceptions. This rate is with women under the age of 25. The older the women are, the higher the chance of Down syndrome is.

In 4% of the cases except a trisomy 21 there is also another chromosomal abnormality. It occurs a translocation between chromosome 21 and chromosome 13, 14 or 15. This causes additional changes in the normal development.

Symptoms of Down syndrome

With this syndrome symptoms can vary with different people. They could be really mild or severe.

There could be growth retardation, mental retardation, hypotonia, leukemia, thyroid dysfunction, cardiac defects, decreased muscle tone. The head is smaller and with a different than the normal shape. There is a flat face and small ears. Down syndrome is characterized also by premature aging, small mouth, upward slanting eyes. The hands are short, as well the fingers. The eye has white spots on its color part.

As shown the result of this syndrome affects both outlook and the normal structure and functions of organs. For patients with Down syndrome is typical to have poor judgement, impulsive behavior, as well as a slower learning process. There are particular medical related conditions that could occur as well. Such are dislocations in the hip zone, dementia, cataracts, problems with hearing.

Treatment methods

So far there is no particular treatment, that can make these chromosomal abnormalities fade or decrease their effect on the organism. Sometimes there could be done surgeries of the heard or other systems and organs, which are affected and cause risk of death.

There are different trainings that prepare the parents and the child with Down syndrome, that to some extent helps them to go through this together and not lose their positivity and love for life.


HIFU treatment of prostate cancer

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The percentage of men suffering prostate cancer increases with every year. Cancer is a really dangerous disease, that seems to be affecting more and more people. It is life threatening and there is no real treatment for it. Prostate cancer is a type which also could have a lethal outcome. The prostate is an organ of the male reproductive system. It participates in men normal sexual activity, produces liquid that takes part in the semen. It helps for the normal function of the spermatozoids.

Being diagnosed with prostate cancer has a really big impact on one’s life.  Of course, there are different ways that can be taken as a treatment. The information about each one of them would be given by the doctor and the staff. There would be help and any questions will be answered.

HIFU treatment

Most doctors advise their patients to choose the HIFU treatment. It is a new way of treating prostate cancer. It is preferred because of its least invasion of other tissues. Cancerous tissue is addressed with ultrasound waves that lead to increase in temperature and destroying the cells of this tissue. Any other cells around it are not damaged. The specific place is easy to be treated without having the usual side effects of the other treatments. HIFU technique lets the doctor have a good imaging resolution. This is extremely important for the normal performing of this procedure.

Great side of HIFU treatment is also that there is no hospitalization after the procedure. You can go home and enjoy the time with your family. There is no better place to regain strength and health than the place you call home.

The precision minimum invasion of the High Intensity Focused Ultrasound treatment and its great outcome is one great choice for prostate cancer patients.

Side effects

Of course this treatment has its side effects, which the doctor should explain before further proceeding. Such are:

  • Proteinuria
  • Prostatitis
  • Pain around the treated tissues
  • Difficulty during urinating
  • Hematospermia

HIFU treatment gives good chances to the patients. However, cancer is a disease that can always revive. Check ups should be performed to make sure everything is okay.

Klinefelter syndrome

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Chromosome abnormalities can occur in both autosomes and sex chromosomes. When occurring in sex chromosomes there could be different outcomes. One of them is trisomy, where men have two X chromosomes and one Y chromosome. Because of this they have 47 chromosomes and their karyotype is 47XXY. It is called Klinefelter syndrome. This anomaly is seen only with men. Signs of it usually are noticed during puberty, where there are some changes in the outlook than a normal male development.

Signs of Klinefelter syndrome

Men with this anomaly in most cases are sterile, low development of the testicles ( testicular atrophy), gynecomastia ( increased size of the chest) and hyalinization of the seminiferous tubules. There is also a presence of sex chromatin (Barr) body. This body is typical of one of the two chromosomes in women. Having two X chromosomes in men is the reason for the forming of this body. There is also less amount pubic hair than normal. The same is for the hair of the armpits and face. Body proportions are different than normal as well. Usually there are long legs and short trunk, as well as same sized shoulders and hips.

Tests and treatment

Determining this anomaly can happen by performing tests such as karyotyping and semen count. Hormone levels could be checked as well by blood tests. Usually the analyzed hormones are Estradiol, Follicle stimulating hormone, Lutinizing hormone and Testosterone.

As treatment testosterone could be prescribed to the patient. The purpose of this is to grow more hair, improve muscles and concentration, increase strength, mood and self esteem.

How often does it occur?

The frequency of this anomaly is one in 500 newborn males. There are cases where there could be more than two X chromosomes. For example there could be three (48XXXY). That means there are 44 autosomes and 4 sex chromosomes in the child’s cells. The larger number of X chromosomes makes it  more likely to have mental impairment.

Tourette syndrome

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There are syndromes that do not have a lethal outcome in the fetus or the child. Such a syndrome is the Tourette one.  People with this syndrome undergo so called tics, which can occur repetitively during the day or night during sleep. However, the frequency of the tics during sleep is decreased.

What is typical of the tics?

The tics are characterized by involuntary movements and vocalizations.  There are two types of tics – simple and complex.

Simple tics include brief, sudden movements, which are triggered by a limited number of muscle groups.  For example such are eye movements, shoulder shrugging, grimaces and others.  There could be also vocalizations such as throat-clearing and grunting sounds.

Complex tics include movements which are triggered by a larger number of muscle groups. Typical of those tics are that there could be several specific movements at the time. For example head jerking and shoulder shrugging. The vocalizations also include throat-clearing, grunting, sometimes even barking. Complex tics are characterized by more noticeable vocalizations that include whole words and phrases, which are inappropriate. For example swearing. None of the movements or vocalizations are voluntary even though in some of the cases it seems as if they are.

There is another classification of the tics. According to it, tics can be vocal or motor.

A really dangerous side of these tics is that with the complex type there could be movements that threaten the health or life of the person. For example hitting oneself.

What can trigger a tic?

Tics can be triggered by seeing or hearing other people making movements or sounds similar to the ones during a tic. An example of this is hearing somebody clearing their throat.

Is there a treatment?

So far there is not a medicine that can completely cure this syndrome. There are neuroleptics that can relieve the symptoms of people with more complex tics that interfere with their normal functioning. Those neuroleptics have also side effects, such as Parkinson like symptoms, tremors and others. One effective way of avoiding these side effects is by taking at first a normal dose of neuroleptics which with time decreases before the side effects appear.